Wednesday, March 01, 2006

Annotated, pt.2

Jenkins, Henry. “Make Meaning, Not War: Rethinking the Video Game Violence Debate." Independent School 63 (2004):38-44, 46-8. Jenkins reviews the Video game violence debate, beginning with the 2002 ruling of U.S. District Judge Stephen N. Limbaugh, Sr. that video games have no redeeming social importance, and are thus not covered under protection from the Constitution. Jenkins brings to bear the flaws in many experiments that have “proven” a connection between video games and violence. More importantly, he brings to bear case studies for the positive aspects of video games.

Wagner, Cynthia G. “Aggression and Violent Media.” The Futurist 38 (2004): 16. Wagner opens with the phrase “Playing video games may lead to more violence than watching TV” hinting at perhaps a less-than-balance argument. However, the article provides numerous statistics, and offers opposing viewpoints on the subject, ranging from “raised aggression levels in males who play” versus, a very interesting theory that perhaps the reason why there often appear more opportunities to males in high-level technology jobs is that more males play video games than females.

Herzfeld, Noreen. “Video Shootout.” The Christian Century 121 (2004): 22-3. This article includes a brief account of a Minnesota shooting accredited to video games. Herzfield notes the use of first-person-shooter games in military training, and makes the claim that “exposure to simulated violence and death desensitizes people, lowering inhibitions and making it easier to commit violence in the real world.” Herzefeld acknowledges other games, such as strategy and roleplaying games, reluctantly crediting them with cooperation and problem solving skills. She categorizes the video game world as a “lonely place” in which isolation and constant violence leads to the creation of violent individuals.

Fontana, Leonard and Adela Beckerman. “Childhood Violence Prevention Education Using Video Games.” Information Technology in Childhood Education (2004): 49-62. The article describes a project that used video games to raise violence awareness and prevent it. A basic graphical user interface and games that promoted peaceful solutions to problems was presented to a number of students. In the end, the data was fairly conclusive that the children learned from the game about violence prevention. This can be used as an example of the influence of video games as well as proof that it is not the video games themselves, but their content that may be the problem of other games.

Hemphill, Thomas A. “The Entertainment Industry, Marketing Practices, and Violent
Content: Who’s Minding the Children?” Business and Society Review 108
(2003): 263-77. This article review the FTC investigation in 2000 to determine the proliferation of graphic images in the advertisement of mature Movies, Games, and Music. The study used the rating systems in place for each of the media and studied ad placement of the three. It was found that both Movies and Video games were most compliant with FTC regulations, with a steady decline evident in a 2001 review of R-rated movies and M-rated games in teen magazines and television geared for teenagers. The article also includes responses of the National Institute on median and the Family to the efforts of the ESRB to rate games. It also includes excellent First Amendment cases utilized in this situation.

I love your topic and can't wait to read the final!
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